- 450g organic wholemeal flour
- 450g organic spelt flour
- 100g organic quinoa flour
- 20g organic oat flakes
- 50g organic millet
- 50g organic sunflower seeds
- 50g organic pumpkin seeds
- 20g organic hemp seeds
- 50g organic linseeds
- 4g sea salt
- 14g dry yeast
- 1 tablespoon organic honey
- 300-400g warm water
Mix 7g of yeast with a tablespoon of the wholemeal flour and 100g of warm water. Set aside.
Put the oat flakes and all the seeds in a roasting tray and roast them in a the oven set on high heat for about ten minutes. Set them aside to cool down.
In the bowl of a kenwood chef type of kitchen equipment, put the flours, the salt, the honey, the rest of the yeast and the warm roasted seeds. Set the machine, with the hook, on its minimum speed, allow the dry ingredients to be mixed for 10 seconds.
Then, start to slowly add the warm water. When half of the water has been added, pour the yeast-flour mixture and the rest of the water*. The right consistency is moist and soft but not wet.
When all the ingredients have come together, set to a medium speed and allow to work the dough for 10 minutes. Then, set your machine on high speed (not the maximum though), and let it work for another 10 minutes. Finally, reduce the speed to the minimum and allow to work the dough for another 5 minutes.
Put the dough in a large, clean container to ferment for 2h in a warm place. Make sure to cover your dough with a clean, damp kitchen cloth.
When the dough has double in volume, put back in the bowl and set your machine on medium speed and allow the dough to work for ten minutes. Then, take it out on a floured surface, and knead the dough by hand for 15 minutes.
Divide your dough in to equal masses and form a ball or put them in a baking tin. Make a large cut in the middle of each ball of dough (see picture on the left). Put in a warm place to rise for another hour, covered with a clean, damp kitchen cloth.
Set your oven at 220 degrees Celsius (428F). Spray the dough with a little bit of water and put in the oven. After 15 minutes, turn the oven down to 180 degrees Celsius (356F) and allow to cook for another 20 minutes. To know if the bread is cooked, tap it with a finger, it should sound hollow. Allow to cool down on a rack.
Note that if using a tin, take the breads out, after 25 minutes of baking and put them back in the oven for another ten minutes.
* You may have noticed that the amount of water that I gave in the ingredient list is 300 to 400g. This amount will vary depending the behaviour of the flour. Its moisture may change with the weather condition or the way it is stored. So, depending on your flour you may not have to use all the water or have to add a little bit more.
Nutrition Facts 83g serving of bread
Calories (kcal): 411 of which 18.7% from fat, 64.9% from carbohydrates, 16.4% from protein.
Total fat: 8g (13%)* of which 1g sat. fat (6%) ; 3g monounsat. fat (11%) ; 4g polyunst. fat (20%)
Total carbohydrates: 65g (22%) of which 11g ( 43%) dietary fibers.
Protein: 16g (33%)
Sodium 140mg (6%); Potassium 397mg (11%); Calcium 41mg (4%); Iron 6mg (32%); Zinc 4mg (26%); Vit A 107UI (2%) & 24RE (2%); Vit B1 0.6mg (42%); Vit B6 0.2mg (8%); Vit B12 0.5mcg (8%); Folacin 67mcg (17%); Niacin 7mg (36%); Vit C trace.
* Percent daily values are based on a 2000 calorie diet.
"In Paris today millions of pounds of bread are sold daily, made during the previous night by those strange, half-naked beings one glimpses through cellar windows, whose wild-seeming cries floating out of those depths always makes a painful impression. In the morning, one sees these pale men, still white with flour, carrying a loaf under one arm, going off to rest and gather new strength to renew their hard and useful labor when night comes again. I have always highly esteemed the brave and humble workers who labor all night to produce those soft but crusty loaves that look more like cake than bread."
Alexandre Dumas, French writer (1802-1870)
There are two main factors that make it easier for the cook to generate small droplets. The first one, is the thickness of the continuous phase, which drag harder on the droplets and transfers more shearing force to them from the whisk.
In a bottle put some water (about 1/2 pt) and some oil (about 2 tablespoons) (fig. 1), give it a good shake (fig. 2) the oil droplets are coarse and quickly coalesce (fig. 3). In another bottle put some oil but in the reverse proportions, 1/2 pt of oil and 2 tablespoons of water (fig. 4) and shake a little (fig. 5). The water breaks into a persistent cloud of droplets (fig. 6).
Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3
Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6
In conclusion it helps to start with as viscous a part of the continuous phase as possible and dilute in it, any of the other ingredients required in the recipe, after the emulsion has been established.
- The first ones are, like the phospholipid lecithin in the egg, are small molecule that have an hydrophobe side that attach itself in the fat phase and an hydrophile head that is electrically attracted to the water molecules of the emulsion.
- The second one are proteins which are much larger chains of amino-acids that have a number of hydrophobe and hydrophyle regions. The yolk proteins in the eggs and the casein in dairies are the best protein emulsifying agent.
- The first ingredients in the bowl must be the continuous phase and at least one emulsifying or stabilizing element. The dispersed phase must, ALWAYS, be added to the continuous phase. Otherwise it cannot be dispersed.
- The dispersed phase must be added to the continuous phase very gradually, to begin with. Then, it requires an energetic and continuous whisking all the way through the making of the sauce. ONLY, when the sauce has started to thicken and become more viscous that the oil be added more rapidly.
- Finally, the proportions of the two phases must be kept in balance. The right proportion is that the dispersed phase should not exceed three times the volume of the continuous phase. If the emulsion stats looking stiff it is the sign that it is time to add more continuous phase to the sauce.
When the sauce is finished, it should not be stored at a temperature that is either too hot nor too cold. It should not be kept at a temperature exceeding 60 degrees Celsius. They should not be stored at a low temperature either, under 15 degrees Celsius the surface tension increases making it more likely to coalesce. Butterfat and some oils, solidify at room temperature or in the fridge. This results in sharp-edged fat crystals rupturing the layer of emulsifier on the droplets. Then the sauce will coalesce and separate when stirred or warmed.
In the event of the sauce separating, there are two ways to reemulsify it.
- The first one is to put the sauce in a blender to break the dispersed phase apart again. This has its limitation. It will only work if the sauce still has enough emulsifier left intact. It won't work in the event of the sauce being overheated. Especially, sauces like bearnaise or hollandaise that contains eggs, their proteins may have been cooked thus destroying their emulsifying properties.
- The second one and more reliable one, is to start with a small amount of the continuous phase, adding in an egg yolk (optional), and carefully beat the broken sauce back into it. If the proteins in the sauce have coagulated (cooked) they must be strained out of the sauce first, then it is a good idea to add an egg yolk at the beginning of the process.
Whole milk ..................5
Semi-skimmed milk ..................15
Light cream ................25
Double cream ................70
Double cream reduce by a 1/3 ................160
Egg yolk ..................65
After all these basic sauce recipes that will allow you to master the different techniques used in sauce making, let's have a closer look at the influence of the thickeners on the sauce flavour elements. It is now, understood that the thicker the sauce is, the least flavour it will have.